Structured Wiring

You ask... What Is Structured wiring?

We offer complete Structured Wiring systems from Leviton, On Q and ChannelVision Central. Please include the desired products from each of the three product groups that comprise Structured Wiring Systems: Modules, A Structured Media Panel, and the Multi-Media Wallplates. Many of the Modules are compatible between the two manufacturers, however it is usually best to select the manufacturer of your choice and plan your entire system with their products. We appreciate the challenge of planning your system and would be pleased to assist you anyway possible.

Structured Wiring Panels vary in size; plan on a wall area of no less than 4’ high by 4’ wide for the Panel and Cables in a service area such as a garage, attic, or basement. The Structured Wiring method of distribution is best suited to new construction when the walls are still “open”, however it is still a viable solution for an existing home that offers access to the desired rooms via an attic or basement.

Please also visit our Design center for Multi source Multi zone, Phone Systems, and Home Networking Product Categories for existing home construction, or if you simply prefer a separate system approach, or are just interested in installing one of our systems at this time.

Our wiring system is Star-wiring -instead of daisy-chaining, and all the cables are home run to central location or you can call it central hub.
High quality Cable connections also called terminations it ensure high performance end-to-end system

We at smarthomeideas offer complete Structured Wiring Systems Packages from the best manufactures in automation industry. Many of the Modules are compatible between the two manufacturers.

Structured Wiring
Infrastructure wiring block diagram show ing the three major components: distribution equipment, cable, and outlets.
Distribution device contains all the hardware components to support all analog and digital networks.

The coax distribution equipment may include internal cable support from one or more outlets to allow in-home source signals such as the output of a DVD player or VCR to be viewed at any cable outlet. These signals are combined with incoming cable or off-air signals so that they can be viewed on the same destination equipment.

All cables are home-run from the distribution equipment to the outlet jack. Outlets may contain almost any combination of TP voice or data jacks, or coax cable jacks.

System Requirements
Infrastructure wiring systems need to provide support for a range of applications that use TP wiring and coaxial cable wiring. The following is a list of the most common requirements for each media type.

Traditional TP voice telecom applications
Voice telephone outlets (voice, fax, analog modem) in most rooms of the home
Support up to 4 incoming lines
Allow each outlet to be assigned a combination of incoming line service

TP data network applications
Support Ethernet type data networks at outlets in most rooms
Support data rates of at least 100 Mbps
Attach to a network hub device at the distribution device

Traditional coax cable applications
Distribute incoming cable television service to multiple locations in the home
Distribute off-air television service to multiple locations
Provide necessary signal amplification and conditioning
Support necessary termination at each outlet

Advanced coax cable applications
Distribute in-home generated video sources to the same outlet as cable TV service
Provide DSS signal distribution
Support reverse cable signal path
Support cable modem service

Most commercially available distribution systems are designed to support a minimum subset of these capabilities (traditional services) as well as data and advanced coax services.

Branch cables for each network type (TP, coax, FO) originate at the distribution device and terminate at a single wall outlet. This type of cable run, where there is one cable from an outlet back to the distribution device, is referred to as a home-run wiring. A home-run means that there is only one connection point, or outlet jack, on each branch cable.

Older wiring methods, particularly for telephone wiring, allowed several outlets to be connected to one cable. This is referred to as daisy-chain wiring and is no longer used for several reasons.

Home-run wiring allows maximum flexibility in determining the application that is supported at the outlet. An outlet that is used for voice service today can be easily changed to data service just by moving the cable at the distribution device. It also allows high-speed data service to be supported since that service permits only one device attached to a cable run.

Outlet Locations
TIA-570A requires a minimum of one outlet location (for each media) in each of the following rooms: kitchen, each bedroom, family/great room, den/study. In addition the standard states that outlet locations should be provided in each room and additional outlet locations provided within unbroken wall spaces of 12 ft. or more. Additional outlet locations should be provided so that no point along the floor line in any wall space is more than 25 ft. from an outlet location in that spaces.

Distribution Device
The distribution device is typically installed in a metal rough-in box mounted during the home prewire stage. All branch run cables (voice, data, coax, etc.) start at the distribution device box and run to outlet locations throughout the home.

The distribution device (or center) houses TP distribution equipment, coax network distribution equipment, a power supply, and depending on the manufacturer, devices such as Ethernet hubs, modulators, even audio distribution equipment.

Structured Wiring
Typical distribution equipment rough-in box (left) showing home-run cable from the box to outlet locations. Typical distribution center equipment (right) contains coax cable distibution on left and TP cable distribution on the right side.

The TP Network
The TP network consist of the cable, outlets, and distribution equipment necessary to support all analog and digital application that are intended to be carried over TP cable.

TP Cable
TP cable used for infrastructure cabling should always be category 5, 4-pair, cable or better (category 5e). The category ratings of cable was describes in Section 2. Category 5 cable (abbreviated as CAT 5) is designed to support applications that use bandwidths that need up to 100 MHz.

Standard pair color coding for 4-pair TP cable per TIA standards.

The jacket of TP cable is available in several different colors to help identify the use of cables in a particular installation. There is no standard that defines a given color for a given application (blue jacket for data applications, for example).

TP Plugs and Jacks
TP cable should always be terminated (connectorized) with 8-pin modular jacks and plugs. Their design is standardized and almost all are interchangeable between manufacturers

Typical 8-pin modular TP plug and jack.

TP outlets should always use modular 8-pin jacks. The wiring of the four pairs in a TP cable to the pins on the jack is standardized in TIA-570A as the T568A configuration. This refers to a standard jack wiring in TIA-568A known as the 'A' configuration (no relation to the letter A in the standard name). This wiring configuration is shown in figure 3.6. There is another popular configuration known as T568B that is used mainly in commercial installation. Most jacks are labeled as to the color is assigned to what punch-down contact.

Modular Jack
8-pin modular jack wiring. Jack pins are numbered looking into the jack from left to right.

This wiring configuration allows backward compatibility with traditional 4 and 6-pin jacks. Voice line 1 is always on the center two pins, and voice line 2 is always on the next pair straddling line 1. If a 4 or 6-pin plug is inserted into an 8-pin jack, the voice line pairs (center 4) make correct contact.

TP Network Distribution Equipment
The TP network consists of branch runs of TP cable originating at the TP distribution equipment and terminating in a TP outlet (Figure 3.7). The two primary uses of TP are for traditional voice and analog services and data networks. The TP distribution device must receive incoming telecom services from the telephone NI and connect them to branch cable runs to outlets that are used for voice and other analog services (fax, modem, etc.). It must also support data networks, typically Ethernet, from a hub device.

Floor Plan
Typical TP network wiring from distribution location to outlet locations in each room.

TP Cross-Connect
The TP cross-connect is used to support distribution of incoming telephone analog services. It provides a flexible way to select which incoming telecom lines from the NI, go to which outlet lines by cross-connecting incoming pairs to outlet pairs, either in groups, or on a one-to-one basis. This allows jacks in the home office, for example, to have the office telephone line appear on the line-1 pins of jacks in the office, and the kids telephone line to appear on line-1 of the jacks in the kids room, and so on. This prevents having to use adapters on the outlets.

In the cross-connect schematic in Figure 3.8, the colored lines represent the four possible incoming pairs from the NI at the Auxiliary Disconnect 8-pin jack (four pair CAT 5 cable is run from the Auxiliary disconnect to the telephone NI). The other jacks represent locations to connect branch cable runs to room outlets.

The bottom row of outlet jacks will have incoming line 1 (blue pair), 2, 3, and 4 connected to line 1, 2, 3, and 4 at the outlet respectively (called a "straight-through" cross connect). The top row has incoming line-1 connected to outlet jack line-2, incoming line-2 connected to outlet jack line-3, etc.

TP Cross-Connect
TP cross-connect schematic diagram. Incoming telco lines at the auxiliary disconnect are cross connected in three groups of 4 jacks. Each group of jacks is intended to be connected to branch cable runs (connectorized with a plug on the end) that need the appropriate cross-connect for that room.


TP Data Hubs
Ethernet data hubs for 10Base-T and 100Base-T are available (usually standard) for almost all commercially available distribution devices for TP cable. The hubs have 8-pin modular jacks for each cable run assigned to a data outlet. They are available in 4, 6, 8, or more ports.

Figure 3.10 shows how the hub is used to form a data network in the home. CAT 5 cable that runs to any 8-pin modular outlet may be plugged into the hub. The use and wiring is the same for 10 or 100 Mbps networks as long as the 90 meter length limit is adhered to.

Data hubs are often built into gateway devices that interface to ADSL or cable modems also installed in the distribution center.

Distribution Center
Typical 10base-T hub showing how it is wired to data outlets. Note that any outlet can be assigned as a data outlet
just by plugging the cable from the outlet into the hub.


Coax Network
The coax network consists of branch runs of coax cable originating at the coax distribution equipment and terminating at a coax outlet. The primary function of the coax network is to distribute external off-air or cable television service to outlets throughout the home. The network also has several secondary functions including distributing in-home generated video and RF sources such as VCR's and DVDs, and supporting digital cable modem services.

The network consists of branch cable runs from the distribution amplifier to coax outlets in each room

Coax Network
Coax network wiring from distribution device to room outlets.

As described in Section 2 of the Guide, the coaxial cable used for in-home wiring should be RG-6 or equivalent. RG-6 is a general designation (also referred to as Series 6) of a 75 ohm impedance high performance coax cable. There are many different types of RG-6 coaxial cable available from many different manufacturers. The biggest difference between them is the number of shields.

Example of tri-shield RG-6 coax (foil, braid, foil). The center conductor is always solid copper or copper-clad steel.

RG-6 is available with 2, 3, and 4 shields. The inner shield is an aluminum foil, covered by a woven braid. Tri-shield cable has another foil shield, and quad-shield cable has a final outer braid shield. The shield's primary purpose is to prevent external signals from getting into the cable. The more shields, the better the interference protection. However, most of the protection is provided by the foil shields, the braids primarily provide strength and secondary shielding. Either tri or quad-shield RG-6 is recommended for residential installation.

All coaxial cables used for residential broadband distribution are terminated at each end in a coax 'F' connector.

Voice and data RG

Typical outlet combining 2 coax jacks (INTERNAL and EXTERNAL) and 1 TP jack. Mounting hardware is
available to allow CO-locating the jack outlet with the electrical outlet making a neat installation.    

In order to support the distribution of signals that originate in the home, two coax cables are often run to a coax outlet locations. The modulated output of a VCR or other video source (modulated to an unused cable or off-air channel), is attached to the INTERNAL cable jack (Figure 3-16). The signal is then combined at the distribution device with any other in-home sources at other outlets, amplified (to overcome loss in the combiner and cable), and combined with external sources (cable television or off-air signals), and distributed to all EXTERNAL cables and jacks. This allows, for example, a VCR in the den to be watched in the upstairs master bedroom.

The design and installation of infrastructure cabling systems consists of seven steps:

Define the job with the client
Mark up plans
Develop wiring schedule
Mark locations on site
Prewire and test
Trim out and test
Documentation and familiarization

1. Define the job with the client
This consists of explaining the concepts and benefits and covering the capabilities of the system. We will need to determine what the needs of the client are, what equipment will be installed in the home, the kinds of systems that need to be supported, and future plans of the homeowner in terms of added system.

2. Mark up plans
We use standardized technique, mark the location of outlets and distribution equipment while consulting with the homeowner. Suggest additional locations for outlets where computer equipment will be located, appliances and entertainment equipment that may need Internet access in the future. Also consider furniture arrangement and the flexibility that extra outlets provide.

Determine the most desirable location for the distribution equipment. It should be centrally located to keep wire length to a minimum. It should also be in a conditioned space, typical limits are between 40 to 90 degrees F.

3. Develop a cable schedule
A cable schedule contains a list of each cable required for the prewire as well as outlet rough-in types. The format is not important but it should contain:

wire number or code
the wire type
the source
the destination
the associated outlet type
rough-in requirements
any special instructions (such as mount rough-in next to electrical outlet)
and check-off columns to record the results of cable testing
The cable schedule is used by the installer as a checklist to document that each cable was installed, tested, and the correct rough-in box was used.

4. Mark locations on site
We Perform a walk through of the home to confirm the placement of outlets and distribution equipment and mark the locations on wall studs or the floor. Small tags stapled to the studs can be a helpful way to code locations to the plans or wire schedule.

5. Perform the prewire
During the prewire stage, We will:

install the distribution equipment rough-in boxes
install the outlet rough-in rings or boxes at the marked locations
prepare the cable runs (drill necessary holes)
pull all cables from their source to destination locations and secure the cables
label and test each cable
protect the cables and rough-in boxes until trim-out stage
Most distribution equipment will require a dedicated 15A outlet or junction box. Coordinate with the electrical contractor to make sure this branch cable is run from the load center during prewire.

The outlet rough-in can be a ring or box mounted at a standard height above the floor. Outlet height should be consistent with existing electrical outlets and switches. If there are no existing outlets in a room, center outlet boxes 12" from the floor, and other rough-in boxes 48" from the floor for switch height.

Preparing the cable runs
We Keep infrastructure wire runs away from electrical wire runs to avoid possible interference. We Do not use holes used for electrical wiring or plumbing.

When drilling holes, We use the smallest hole necessary to allow a loose cable pull.

We keep holes centered in vertical studs. Never drill holes in glue-lam beams or door or window headers. We consult local building codes on maximum hole sized for various sizes of wood members.

6. Trim-Out and Test
Once the house is completed, the trim-out phase can be performed. This consists of 6 steps:

1) Install the outlets - install all outlet hardware and make sure outlets are correctly labeled
2) Install peripheral devices - such as keypads, modulators, etc.
3) Install distribution center equipment - install TP cross-connect and coax distribution equipment.
4) Configure the system - configure outlet cable runs to the right device, We make sure coax cable runs     are connected to the correct coax distribution equipment
5) Connect external services - connect cable runs from the NI devices to the TP and coax equipment.
6) We test the system for proper operation - make sure all outlets are operating properly

7. Documentation and Familiarization
We collect all documentation associated with the job. Keep one copy on the site and one at our office.

It is our responsibility to complete familiarize the home owner well enough so that they may take maximum use of the features with minimum difficulty. Cover the documentation, manuals, system operation, warranty coverage, and options that may be of interest in the future. We offer to have someone personally train the user step-by-step and more importantly, observe the user's knowledge and competency while using the system.

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